This is the Main Study of the ACTION project (Aggression in Children: Unraveling gene-environment interplay to inform Treatment and interventION strategies Consortium; http://www.action-euproject.eu/). Here, data collection of first-morning urine samples for metabolomics biomarker discovery and buccal-cell DNA samples for (epi)genetics was conducted in a large cohort of young twins. Family members living at the same address as the participating twin pairs were also asked to provide a buccal-cell DNA sample. The twins were selected to be part of a concordant low-scoring twin pair, a concordant high-scoring twin pair, or a discordant twin pair. Aggression had been assessed in the past by the age-appropriate version of the CBCL (Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) Child Behavior Checklist). During the urine and buccal-cell collection, parents of the twins were asked to complete the ASEBA CBCL for school-aged children (6-18 years) to reflect the current child behaviors, and to provide information about health condition of the twins and conditions of urine collection. Biochemical measurement in urine included a dipstick, density (specific gravity), creatinine, neopterin, C-peptide, Substance P, and oxidized DNA/RNA. Metabolomics data of the Main Study together with the samples obtained in the Biochemical Study (ACTIONBB2) were were obtained from three metabolomics platforms: 1) a liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) platform targeting amines; 2) a LC-MS platform targeting steroid hormones; and 3) a gas chromatography (GC) MS platform targeting organic acids. Buccal-cell samples of the twins from the Main Study together with the samples obtained in the Biochemical Study (ACTIONBB2) were used for genome-wide methylation measurement on the Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip Kit (after conclussion of the ACTION project additional twin pairs and siblings were also measured on this platform). DNA samples from all family members were genotyped on the Affymetrix Axiom or Illumina GSA genotyping arrays.

Subject age
  • 6.0 - 13.0 years
Time span From 2016-01-01 to 2017-01-01
Geographic location NL
Dorret I. Boomsma
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Meike Bartels
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Fiona A. Hagenbeek
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Marjolein M.L.J.Z. Vandenbosch
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Funding information
European Union Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007–2013)
You can also access this dataset using the API (see API Docs).