This is the first wave of the technical pilot of the ACTION project (Aggression in Children: Unraveling gene-environment interplay to inform Treatment and interventION strategies Consortium; http://www.action-euproject.eu/). The aim of the technical pilot was to test the collection protocols for urine and buccal sample collection in children. The technical pilot comprised of twin participants with a low aggression score (T-score<65) on the mother-reported ASEBA CBCL Aggression Syndrome Scale at age 3 and/or age 7. Urine samples with minimal information regarding urine collection were collected at two timepoints with an interval of approximately two weeks. Urine samples contributed to the optimization of the biomarker assays and the liquid and gas chromatography mass spectrometry protocols for analyzing urine samples in children. In the technical pilot a urine dipstick and assessment of urine density (specific gravity) were obtained in addition to 15 biomarker assays (creatinine, neopterin, C-peptide, Substance P, Oxidized DNA/RNA, Procalcitonin, total antioxidant capacity, glucose, Thiobarbituric acid reactive species, beta-endorphin, cholecytokin, leu-enkaphalin, dynorphin A, albumin, and neurotensin) , and two metabolomics platforms (liquid chromatography mass spectrometry platform targeting amines and gas chromatography mass spectrometry platform targeting organic acids). Buccal-cell samples were also collected at both time points where samples obtained from wave 1 were genotyped on the Affymetrix Axiom genotyping array.

Subject age
  • 10.0 - 13.0 years
Time span From 2014-01-01 to 2015-01-01
Geographic location Amsterdam region NL
Dorret I. Boomsma
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Meike Bartels
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Fiona A. Hagenbeek
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Marjolein M.L.J.Z. Vandenbosch
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Funding information
European Union Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007–2013)
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