This is the Biochemical Study of the ACTION project (Aggression in Children: Unraveling gene-environment interplay to inform Treatment and interventION strategies Consortium; http://www.action-euproject.eu/). The aim of the biochemical study was to further validate the biomarker assays and metabolomics platforms selected during the technical pilot in a larger twin sample. The twins were selected based on their mother-rated aggression scores (Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) Child Behavior Checklist) at age 3 and/or 7. The Biochemical study comprised concordant low-scoring twin pairs, concordant high-scoring twin pairs, and a discordant low-high scoring twin pairs. High aggression was defined as having an ASEBA CBCL Aggression Syndrome Scale T-score equal to or larger than 65, and low aggression as an ASEBA CBCL Aggression Syndrome Scale T-score of less than 65. Here, data collection comprised of first-morning urine samples and buccal-cell DNA samples in the twins and family members living at the same address as the participating twin pairs were also asked to provide a buccal-cell DNA sample. During the urine and buccal-cell collection, parents of the twins were asked to complete the ASEBA CBCL for school-aged children (6-18 years) to reflect the current child behaviors, and to provide information about health condition of the twins and conditions of urine collection. Biochemical measurement in urine included a dipstick, density (specific gravity), creatinine, neopterin, C-peptide, Substance P, oxidized DNA/RNA, procalcitonin, total antioxidant capacity, and glucose, and two metabolomics platforms: 1) a liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) platform targeting amines; and 2) a LC-MS platform targeting steroid hormones. Buccal-cell samples genotyped on the Affymetrix Axiom genotyping array.

Subject age
  • 6.0 - 11.0 years
Time span From 2015-01-01 to 2015-01-01
Geographic location NL
Dorret I. Boomsma
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Meike Bartels
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Fiona A. Hagenbeek
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Marjolein M.L.J.Z. Vandenbosch
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Funding information
European Union Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007–2013)
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